The trail winds through the Serra di Ciminna Nature Reserve, a mountainous group with peaks at an average altitude of 750 m, found south of the town of Ciminna.
These are majestic faces of Selenitic Gypsum Chalk, formed following the events that, about six million years ago, led to the drainage of the Mediterranean basin and the subsequent deposit of salts contained in marine waters, forming the deposits that we can now admire. The present vegetation consists essentially of a low garrigue scrubland of ampelodesmos grasses and euphorbia. Here and there, we can also find sparse groves of oak, a species that once dominated these rugged spots. Of particular naturalistic interest is the characteristic flora that grows among the chalk, in particular the Sedum, and the numerous spontaneous spring orchids. These lands are today the undisputed reign of numerous porcupines and many species of birds of prey that nest among the rock faces.
The first part of the route uses a comfortable dirt mule track that climbs rapidly between olive groves and grain fields to reach the Portella di Santa Caterina pass. From here, the route continues, now more evenly, until it intersects a narrow animal path on the right. This climbs rapidly up to the top of the Serre (777 m) and continues along the ridge for about a couple of kilometers, weaving through the spontaneous vegetation. This is the most challenging and at the same time the most impressive part of the excursion; the visual impact is really exciting. Below us, like a rocky wave, rise the overhangs of the Serre, while the panorama in front of us opens over all the surrounding area, from the Rocca Busambra to Mount Cammaratato Mount Cane, Mount San Calogero and the Madonie range.
After crossing the Strait of Carcaci, an ancient access road to the summit of the Serre, the itinerary continues through a scrubland of ampelodesmos, intercepts the evocative entrance of the grotta del Teschio [skull cave] and several ponor pits and sinkholes, then bends to the east to enter a cart track. This, after some ups and downs, brings us back to the initial mule track and, from here, to the starting point. The path is of medium difficulty. The initial climb of
about 1.5 km could be challenging for the less experienced, as well as the long stretch that crosses the ridge of the Serre that travels on animal herd tracks or among natural vegetation.
The itinerary winds through the paths of the splendid, though little-known, Nature Reserve of Monte Carcaci, now included in the Sicani Park. The mountainous complex, of which Mount Carcaci (1196 m.) is the
highest peak, is made up of limestone rocks formed from the Triassic to the Miocene periods; these are different types of limestones and marbles interspersed by clay soils deposited in the progression of the geological and climatic events of the Mediterranean. These geological conditions naturally influence and shape the vegetation, which is found in a number of significant environments: wetlands, woods and natural bushlands, meadows, shrubs and rocky environments.
The hiking trail begins at the scenic seasonal pond of the Marcato delle Lavanche, a few steps from Case Colobria forest shelter. A small trail, initially flat, then steeper, climbs to the northern side of the mountain, winding through
a beautiful mixed forest of oaks and maples, interspersed with pines emerging from a recent reforestation.
After a few kilometers, the trail reaches a clearing where a characteristic wood and straw hut has been reconstructed, in front of an old “marcato”, a stone paddock once used by shepherds to gather sheep. The path then proceeds to an oak grove until it opens onto a service road. This, with a left deviation, leads us to the top of the mountain where we enjoy the splendid 360° panorama over the entire Sicani territory. Then, heading right, the road goes straight on, then downhill, crossing a lush pine forest, reaches the Pagliaio Grande shelter and some restored charcoal kilns. Shortly afterward, the route turns west to enter a picturesque trail (referred to as the ” Ledera trail ” in the
directions of the Reserve) that enters into a lush oak grove until you arrive, after a few ups and downs, to a small forest shelter. Then continue downhill along the trail to intercept a forest road that, after a few kilometers in a slight
uphill, takes us back to the starting point. This is a fairly simple loop itinerary; there may some difficulty in autumn / winter, especially after rains, in some stretches of the initial climb and in the “Ledera” trail because it is both steep and potentially slippery.
The itinerary, which is almost entirely in SIC M. Matassaro, M. Gradara and M. Signora, begins at the Portella della Paglia pass and climbs along the paths of Mirabella, a mountainous complex separating the Jato basin from that of the Oreto. It is a system of harsh and jagged ridges, interspersed with mountain passes and valleys, caves and rock barriers, which winds through a vast network of paths and side roads. Today it is largely devoid of the original tree covering that must have included oak groves on the gentler slopes. These original woodlands are partially replaced today by a large reforestation of pine trees, which leaves space for a maquis-garrigue scrubland of heather and mastic in spring, yellow euphorbiae and rare plants such as the endemic Elleboro of Boccone and numerous spontaneous
This is a territory dense in history of history thanks to its strategic position, which until the 12th century was a
small, independent Arab state.
On the stronghold at the top of the Pizzo Mirabella, between 1222 and 1224 the Arab leader Amir Ibn Abbad (“Mirabettus” in the Latin chronicles and then twisted in the popular tale in “Mirabetto “, from which Pizzo Mirabella) barricaded himself and resisted the long siege imposed by Frederick II of Swabia. This siege ended with the surrender of the Muslims and, in fact, the end of the Arab presence in Sicily. The excursion begins at a state-owned property along a forest road, crosses a disused stone quarry, and snakes inside the pine forest and then climbs, along a path, to the western side. It then continues on the southern ridge to the summit. Here you will be able to choose to return to the starting point through a comfortable road that passes near a well-supplied drinking trough for animals, or take a deviation, with an attractive extra section, to explore the peak of Pizzo Mirabella.
The path will allow us to enjoy broad views of Sicily, ranging from the Madonie mountains to the east, to the Sicani mountains to the Canal of Sicily and Caltabellotta, and across the Jato Valley, appreciating the great strategic importance of the site. It is an excursion of medium / easy difficulty, which takes place almost entirely on well-marked trails and comfortable minor roads, with some steep sections. In case of rain, some sections may be slippery and the trail itself rough. The detour leading to the base of the fort is recommended for experienced hikers considering the changes in elevation and the trail itself, which in large stretches is not easy to follow, being steep and flanked by bushes.
The excursion winds through the paths of the “Monte Cane, Pizzo Trigna and Grotta Mazzamuto” Sustainably
Managed Nature Reserve, an area still relatively unknown but rich in elements of natural and historical archaeological interest.
The route starts directly from the village of Ventimiglia di Sicilia, continues north along a farm road that crosses olive groves and cultivated fields to intercept a path at the base of the southern slope of Pizzo di Cascio. The trail winds first on a large meadow grazed by herds and then climbs quickly to the mountain ridgeline through large calcareous rocky outcrops sculpted by karren, an erosive phenomenon caused by the millennial action of surface water runoff. After reaching the portella di Pizzo di Cascio (1139 m.) pass, the path becomes easier, almost flat, on a comfortable road crossing extensive meadows and pastures, with seasonal ponds. Here you can see the ancient traces of the millennial presence of man, such as the ancient ice houses, residues of an old craft long gone, and the old “marcati” animal pens in disuse, made with dry stone walls and used to gather livestock.
We come next to the Favarotta valley, today home to a herd of wild horses, and proceeds, with a short climb, towards Pizzo Nudo (1174 m). Here, together with the flutter of birds that find shelter in these rocks, we can notice the traces of the vegetation that once covered these valleys: from the holly bushes with the lively red berries to
surviving patches of oak groves. A road leads us to the Pizzo dell’Inferno forest fire observation tower (1225 m). This is a wonderful panoramic balcony from which to admire a bird’s eye view from the Madonie range to the mountains
of San Calogero, from Mount Cammarata, in the heart of the Sicani Mountains, to the Rocca Busambra that towers over Ficuzza, from the promontory of Catalfano above Bagheria to the amphitheater of the Monti di Palermo mountains. Overall, it is hike of medium difficulty, both for the length and for the initial climb on Pizzo di Cascio, at times steep and challenging especially in the event of rain. Lastly, it is advised to avoid the route in the
summer due to the excessive heat and the rarity of shady spots.
The itinerary, inside the Parco del Monte Catalfano, winds through two of the three hills which together form the
complex of Monte Catalfano, a limestone rocky promontory overlooking the plain of Bagheria.
The view faces one side onto the plain of Palermo, embracing a panorama that goes from Punta di Monte Pellegrino to Capo Mongerbino, on the other onto the mountains of Termini Imerese, in the background the Madonie range and then on the vast stretch of coast from Capo Plaia to Cape Saffron.
This is a strategically important position, occupied in the past by the Phoenicians and later by the Romans.
The remains of the city they founded today constitute the important archaeological site of Solunto, located on the east side of the promontory. Along the route there are a collection of natural features, such as the “zubbi ” (vertically developed karst cavities), marine caves, endemic and rare plants, nests of peregrine falcons and other rare birds of
prey. From a botanical point of view, quite valuable are the groves of Kermes Oak, a species that once
characterized the coasts of western Sicily and is today very rare. The trail starts at Portella Vignazza pass, near a park
area with children’s playgrounds, and climbs to the well-known Mount Catalfano (374 m) through a comfortable road that after a few kilometers turns into a well traced path. This climbs to the trigonometric point on the top with the wonderful panorama of the Capo Zafferana promontory underneath, called by the locals, for its shape, “Napoleon’s Hat.” You then go back for a short stretch until you cross another path that brings you back close to your
starting point. From here the route climbs to Cozzo San Pietro (345 m.), enters for a short stretch in a shady pine forest, passing close to a forest ranger station with water fountain, and then winds up the mountain on the western side before climbing towards the top. Finally, a comfortable dirt road goes back to the starting point. The path makes a ‘figure 8’ with two crossing loops: one leading to the summit of Mount Catalfano and the other to Cozzo San Pietro; you can also choose to tackle only one of the two routes as an alternative to the complete itinerary. The excursion, which has no significant difficulty except for some challenging, yet manageable, climbs is essentially on well marked and beaten paths and on comfortable rural roads.
The itinerary, included in the SIC [Site of Community Importance] “Raffo Rosso, Monte Cuccio e Vallone Sagana”, explores the mountains that border the Conca d’Oro basin to the west, a short and gentle mountain range formed of various heights spots such as the 405 m of Cozzo di Paola and the 888 m of Mount Castellaccio. In this range, Pizzo Manolfo (or Minolfo as reported on some maps) together with Pizzo Mollica is the northernmost extremity.
The starting point of our route is just outside the city of Palermo, which can be reached from a farm track that departs from the provincial road 1 from Palermo to Montelepre. Continue by cars along this small road that leads, after about 3.5 km, to the entrance to the vast Raffo Rosso – Manolfo forest area. This is a vast reforestation
of coniferous and other introduced species blended with foliage of Mediterranean scrub and typical rocky environments. This is a rich naturalistic area where you can easily admire birds of prey and where there are rabbits, hares and the rare rock partridge of Sicily.
We leave the car just before a gate and continue on a road that passes by a picnic area and then enters, first with a slight rise then for a long gradual slope, inside the thick pine forest to reach, after about 3.5 km, the summit of Pizzo Manolfo.
Here you will see unparalleled views over the Gulf of Carini and the Longa mountain bastions, and to the east
onto the city of Palermo and the surrounding mountains. We will then briefly retrace our steps to intersect a track on the left that continues through a series of bends along the eastern side of the mountain. Along a long slightly uphill
stretch the trail circumvents the Cozzo San Rocco and then returns to the starting point. The trail does not have any particular challenging features, being essentially on comfortable roads, but the significant length makes it most
suitable for hikers accustomed to long distances.